The comfort properties include the heat transfer and thermal insulation properties of the fabric, water vapor permeability, fabric style, rigidity and flexibility, drape, pilling properties and fire resistance.
The heat transferability of a fabric refers to the ability of a fabric unit area to transmit heat per unit time. It depends on the type of raw material, the fabric structure and the air layer in the fabric. The opposite of heat transfer performance is thermal insulation (thermal resistance).
The water vapor permeability of a fabric refers to the ability of gaseous water to pass through the fabric. When one side of the fabric is subjected to higher water vapor pressure than the other side, water vapor penetrates the fabric. The water vapor permeability is closely related to the raw materials of the fabric, the structure of the spinning yarn, the structure of the fabric and its tightness.
The air permeability of the fabric refers to the air permeability of the fabric, which mainly depends on the gap between the spun yarns and the fibers in the fabric and the shape of the fiber cross section. The greater the warp and weft tightness of the fabric, the tighter the fabric and the worse the air permeability.
The style of the fabric refers to certain appearance and tactile properties of the fabric, such as color, brightness, levelness, finish, cloth flatness, evenness, finish, etc. The touch is smooth, rough; smooth and glutinous, stiff; smooth, rough; rigid, soft; loose, firm; thick, thin; plump, loose; warm, cool, etc.
The feel of a fabric refers to the feel of the hand to identify certain physical properties of the fabric and is an important aspect of style. Different fabrics have different feel. The factors that affect the feel are fiber raw materials, twist degree and direction of spinning yarn, fabric structure, dyeing and finishing process, etc. Among them, fiber raw materials have a greater impact. The hand feel is also related to some mechanical properties of the fabric, such as the flexibility, extensibility, and resilience of the fabric.
The finish of the fabric means that when the finish line shines on the fabric, the reflection is finished to make the fiber finish. The surface of the fiber is smooth, the arrangement is parallel and consistent, the reflection is strong, and the fabric is bright; on the contrary, the surface of the fiber is rough and uneven, the arrangement is disordered, and the reflection is diffused in different directions, and the finish is dark.
The rigidity and flexibility of the fabric refers to the ability of the fabric to resist the bending stress, also known as the bending stiffness. Greater flexural stiffness means stiffer fabric. Appropriate flexural stiffness means that the fabric is quite scratchy.
Drapability of fabric refers to the property of fabric to form a smooth and evenly curved surface under natural drape. The softer the fabric, the better the drape. Drapability is related to rigidity and flexibility, and fabrics with high flexural rigidity have poor drape.
The fabric is constantly rubbed during wearing and washing, which exposes the fiber ends of the surface and presents many hairs called "fuzzing". If these hairs do not fall off in time while continuing to wear, they will entangle with each other and form many bead-shaped particles, which is called "pilling". Fabric pilling is related to fiber properties, length, fineness and cross-sectional shape.
In the process of wearing and cleaning, when the fabric encounters sharp and hard objects, the fibers or monofilaments in it will be hooked out, forming wire loops on the surface, or even being hooked to form a filament called hook wire. This affects the appearance and fastness of the fabric. Knitted fabrics tend to fall apart due to snagging, destroying the tissue structure. The factors that affect snagging and the methods to prevent snagging are basically similar to pilling.